Most docterates are post graduate degrees awarded after a period of fundamental research which is written up in 100,000 word thesis, which will cover a background literature and state of play review, development of hypothesis and then subsequent reasearch and findings. Of course this will vary from discipline to discipline. Most are done over a three to four year period, but many universites allow a longer period.
In some professions -notably the medical, but also engineering (on the continent) you are awarded title Dr, once you have completed your postgraduate professional training - which often includes research as welll. In the medical world when you become a consultant or a surgeon you go back to Mr, Mrs, Ms or Miss.
Many universities will award honoury doctorates to those who have made a major contribution to a particular subject over the course of their career.
Yes the german bit is true. If you have a PhD and do military service the drill sargent must call you herr dokter if you request it. Rather than an expletive. I heard a story from a german hunter this drove a drill Sargent almost insane so they transferred the graduate out. Good ole germans, sticklers for the rules.Because he has a hard-earned genuine PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) from Imperial College, not some honorary title (which doesn't entitle you to call yourself a Dr.
He dropped out from his post-graduate studies there to pursue his guitar playing career for 30 years, but then returned and completed his thesis, which requires supervision, independent assessment. a viva, and publication. You don't get one by just going on a course and passing your exams, you have to have added to scientific knowledge, and be really bright.
There are reasons for having other opinions about the man (particularly his hairstyle), but you can't take this achievement from him. And he looked after Patrick Moore in his dotage, when he had run out of money, so he seems to have a good heart, despite some of his other views that get us riled up.
FWIW his studies related to:
Brian May's thesis examines the mysterious phenomenon knownas Zodiacal light, a misty diffuse cone of light that appears in the westernsky after sunset and in the eastern sky before sunrise. Casual observers, ifthey live under very dark rural skies, can best see the light two to threehours before sunrise as they look east, and many people have been fooled intoseeing it as the first sign of morning twilight. A Persian astronomer who livedaround the 12th century referred to it as "false dawn" in a poem.
Astronomers now know that Zodiacal light represents reflectedsunlight shining on scattered space debris clustered most densely near thesun. The millions of particles range in size from tiny asteroids tomicroscopic dust grains, and extend outward beyond the orbit of Mars.
May's work focuses on an instrument that recorded 250 scansof morning and evening Zodiacal light between 1971 and 1972. The Fabry-PerotSpectrometer is located at the Observatorio del Teide at Izana in Tenerife, thelargest of the Canary Islands."
The completed thesis appears as the book "A Survey ofRadial Velocities in the Zodiacal Dust Cloud" (Springer and CanopusPublishing Ltd., 2008).
"I have thoroughly enjoyed my years playing guitar andrecording music with Queen, but it's extremely gratifying to see thepublication of my thesis," May said. "I've been fascinated withastronomy for years, and I was happy to finally complete my Ph.D. last year andrecord my studies of the Zodiacal Light in this book."
May officially received hisdoctorate on Aug. 24, 2007, from the Imperial College in London. He alsogained the appointmentof chancellor for Liverpool John Moores University in November of thatyear.
As for other Doctors, medics, that's just a courtesy title. Very few GPs are real doctors, though mine is, having gained a PhD in medical statistics after his initial studies. Neither are most consultants, even after they have served their time as "junior doctors" learning their skills on the job. Then they do not call themselves Doctors, just Mr. Ms. or Misses. It's their FRCS or similar that qualifies their practical skills, if you ask.
Once a GP has retired and given up their registration, as they mostly now do at 55 years, they would be wrong to expect to still be called Dr.
No more than you would expect to call your vet or dentist or pharmacist or senior nurse or psychologist a Doctor, even though they may have worked just as hard to gain their qualifications.
Whereas a genuine PhD is for life.
As is my Master of Science, though not my C.Eng unless I keep paying the fees. Those were gained through study, hard work, a project, examination, serving my time, but not necessarily original thinking.
Work at a high level in engineering in Germany and you will need a supposed doctorate, and expect to be addressed as "herr doktor".
A quote from Wikipedia, so it must be true:
"After at least six years of medical school, the students graduate with a final federal medical exam (Dritter Abschnitt der ärztlichen Prüfung). Graduates receive their license to practice medicine and the professional title of physician (Arzt). About 80% of them additionally obtain the academic MD-like degree Doctor of Medicine (Dr. Med.). The corresponding "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study. Obtaining the title is a practical necessity because many medical laypersons incorrectly assume that a doctorate is required for the practice of medicine. The European Research Council decided in 2010 that those Dr. med. doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree."
AFAIK the title for medical pracitioners in Germany is 'Herr' or 'Frau' depending on their sex. Likewise their job is called 'Arzt' or 'Aerztin'.(the *title* for medical doctors in Germany and Austria is "Dr" (as in the UK). The job "Arzt" is analogous to "GP").
I have one too, my first qualification, and the Bronze Medallion to go with it. Do they still teach swimming at school nowadays ?I got my BSc by the time I was 9 years old! (Bronze Swimming Certificate)
I vaguely remember having to do some or all of these things in pyjamas, too?for a rubber brick, swimming a length underwater, rescuing a compliant person using backstroke and cupping their chin, together with how to subdue them if they panic and even break away (knee in the groin etc.)
Yes, the pyjamas too. Of course our emergency services aren't supposed to even try nowadays, risk assessment etc. Fortunately some still will have a go, though expect to be disciplined later.I vaguely remember having to do some or all of these things in pyjamas, too?
Like a Doctor.Yes, the pyjamas too. Of course our emergency services aren't supposed to even try nowadays, risk assessment etc. Fortunately some still will have a go, though expect to be disciplined later.
Or wait for someone qualified to arrive later to deal with the body.
AFAIK the title for medical pracitioners in Germany is 'Herr' or 'Frau' depending on their sex. Likewise their job is called 'Arzt' or 'Aerztin'.
If they are indeed a medical doctor, meaning they have a doctorate as well as being a medical practitioner, then their title is 'Herr/Frau Doktor'.
I've no idea how it (or anything else, for that matter!) works in Austria, but the word 'Arzt' as part of the description for medical practitioners of many disciplines, excluding some surgical specialists, and psychiatrists.